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Mild Moderate Requirements - Alternative Teacher Preparation

 

Standard Description Courses
CC1:K1 Models, theories, and philosophies that form the basis for special education practice. SPED 5300 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
SPED 5430 
CC1:K2 Laws, policies, and ethical principles regarding behavior management planning and implementation. SPED 5300 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
CC1:K3 Relationship of special education to the organization and function of educational agencies. SPED 5300 
CC1:K4 Rights and responsibilities of students, parents, teachers, and other professionals, and schools related to exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5300 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5350 
CC1:K5 Issues in definition and identification of individuals with exceptional learning needs, including those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
CC1:K6 Issues, assurances, and due process rights related to assessment, eligibility, and placement within a continuum of services. SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
CC1:K7 Family systems and the role of families in the educational process. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC1:K8 Historical points of view and contribution of culturally diverse groups.  
CC1:K9 Impact of the dominant culture on shaping schools and the individuals who study and work in them.  
CC1:K10 Potential impact of differences in values, languages, and customs that can exist between the home and school. SPED 5230 
CC1:S1 Articulate personal philosophy of special education. SPED 5230 
CC2:K1 Typical and atypical human growth and development.  
CC2:K2 Educational implications of characteristics of various exceptionalities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5300 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5430 
CC2:K3 Characteristics and effects of the cultural and environmental milieu of the individual with exceptional learning needs and the family.  
CC2:K4 Family systems and the role of families in supporting development. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC2:K5 Similarities and differences of individuals with and without exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5300 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5430 
CC2:K6 Similarities and differences among individuals with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5300 
CC2:K7 Effects of various medications on individuals with exceptional learning needs.  
CC3:K1 Effects an exceptional condition(s) can have on an individual's life. SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC3:K2 Impact of learners' academic and social abilities, attitudes, interests, and values on instruction and career development. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC3:K3 Variations in beliefs, traditions, and values across and within cultures and their effects on relationships among individuals with exceptional learning needs, family, and schooling.  
CC3:K4 Cultural perspectives influencing the relationships among families, schools, and communities as related to instruction. SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC3:K5 Differing ways of learning of individuals with exceptional learning needs including those from culturally diverse backgrounds and strategies for addressing these differences. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5360 
CC4:S1 Use strategies to facilitate integration into various settings. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
CC4:S2 Teach individuals to use self-assessment, problem-solving, and other cognitive strategies to meet their needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
CC4:S3 Select, adapt, and use instructional strategies and materials according to characteristics of the individual with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5300 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
CC4:S4 Use strategies to facilitate maintenance and generalization of skills across learning environments. SPED 5230 
SPED 5300 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5360 
SPED 5430 
CC4:S5 Use procedures to increase the individual's self-awareness, self-management, self-control, self-reliance, and self-esteem. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC4:S6 Use strategies that promote successful transitions for individuals with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5430 
CC5:K1 Demands of learning environments. SPED 5300 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
SPED 5430 
CC5:K2 Basic classroom management theories and strategies for individuals with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5300 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
SPED 5430 
CC5:K3 Effective management of teaching and learning. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
CC5:K4 Teacher attitudes and behaviors that influence behavior of individuals with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
CC5:K5 Social skills needed for educational and other environments. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
CC5:K6 Strategies for crisis prevention and intervention. SPED 5230 
SPED 5360 
CC5:K7 Strategies for preparing individuals to live harmoniously and productively in a culturally diverse world.  
CC5:K8 Ways to create learning environments that allow individuals to retain and appreciate their own and each others' respective language and cultural heritage.  
CC5:K9 Ways specific cultures are negatively stereotyped. SPED 5230 
CC5:K10 Strategies used by diverse populations to cope with a legacy of former and continuing racism.  
CC5:S1 Create a safe, equitable, positive, and supportive learning environment in which diversities are valued. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
SPED 5430 
CC5:S2 Identify realistic expectations for personal and social behavior in various settings. SPED 5230 
SPED 5300 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5360 
CC5:S3 Identify supports needed for integration into various program placements. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC5:S4 Design learning environments that encourage active participation in individual and group activities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
SPED 5430 
CC5:S5 Modify the learning environment to manage behaviors. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
SPED 5430 
CC5:S6 Use performance data and information from all stakeholders to make or suggest modifications in learning environments. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
SPED 5430 
CC5:S7 Establish and maintain rapport with individuals with and without exceptional learning needs.  
CC5:S8 Teach self-advocacy. SPED 5360 
CC5:S9 Create an environment that encourages self-advocacy and increased independence. SPED 5230 
SPED 5360 
CC5:S10 Use effective and varied behavior management strategies. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
CC5:S11 Use the least intensive behavior management strategy consistent with the needs of the individual with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
CC5:S12 Design and manage daily routines. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5350 
CC5:S13 Organize, develop, and sustain learning environments that support positive intracultural and intercultural experiences.  
CC5:S14 Mediate controversial intercultural issues among students within the learning environment in ways that enhance any culture, group, or person.  
CC5:S15 Structure, direct, and support the activities of paraeducators, volunteers, and tutors. SPED 5230 
CC5:S16 Use universal precautions.  
CC6:K1 Effects of cultural and linguistic differences on growth and development.  
CC6:K2 Characteristics of one's own culture and use of language and the ways in which these can differ from other cultures and uses of languages. SPED 5300 
SPED 5360 
CC6:K3 Ways of behaving and communicating among cultures that can lead to misinterpretation and misunderstanding. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
CC6:K4 Augmentative and assistive communication strategies.  
CC6:S1 Use strategies to support and enhance communication skills of individuals with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5430 
CC6:S2 Use communication strategies and resources to facilitate understanding of subject matter for students whose primary language is not the dominant language. SPED 5230 
SPED 5430 
CC7:K1 Theories and research that form the basis of curriculum development and instructional practice.  
CC7:K2 Scope and sequences of general and special curricula. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
CC7:K3 National, state or provincial, and local curricula standards. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
CC7:K4 Technology for planning and managing the teaching and learning environment. SPED 5230 
CC7:K5 Roles and responsibilities of the paraeducator related to instruction, intervention, and direct service. SPED 5230 
CC7:S1 Identify and prioritize areas of the general curriculum and accommodations for individuals with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
CC7:S2 Develop and implement comprehensive, longitudinal individualized programs in collaboration with team members. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
CC7:S3 Involve the individual and family in setting instructional goals and monitoring progress. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
CC7:S4 Use functional assessments to develop intervention plans. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5360 
CC7:S5 Use task analysis. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
CC7:S6 Sequence, implement, and evaluate individualized learning objectives. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
CC7:S7 Integrate affective, social, and life skills with academic curricula. SPED 5230 
SPED 5360 
CC7:S8 Develop and select instructional content, resources, and strategies that respond to cultural, linguistic, and gender differences.  
CC7:S9 Incorporate and implement instructional and assistive technology into the educational program. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
CC7:S10 Prepare lesson plans. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
CC7:S11 Prepare and organize materials to implement daily lesson plans. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
CC7:S12 Use instructional time effectively. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
CC7:S13 Make responsive adjustments to instruction based on continual observations. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
CC7:S14 Prepare individuals to exhibit self-enhancing behavior in response to societal attitudes and actions.  
CC8:K1 Basic terminology used in assessment. SPED 5360 
CC8:K2 Legal provisions and ethical principles regarding assessment of individuals. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC8:K3 Screening, prereferral, referral, and classification procedures. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC8:K4 Use and limitations of assessment instruments. SPED 5230 
CC8:K5 National, state or provincial, and local accommodations and modifications.  
CC8:S1 Gather relevant background information. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC8:S2 Administer nonbiased formal and informal assessments. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC8:S3 Use technology to conduct assessments. SPED 5230 
SPED 5430 
CC8:S4 Develop or modify individualized assessment strategies. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC8:S5 Interpret information from formal and informal assessments. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5430 
CC8:S6 Use assessment information in making eligibility, program, and placement decisions for individuals with exceptional learning needs, including those from culturally and/or linguistically diverse backgrounds. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
CC8:S7 Report assessment results to all stakeholders using effective communication skills. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5430 
CC8:S8 Evaluate instruction and monitor progress of individuals with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
CC8:S9 Develop or modify individualized assessment strategies. SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5360 
CC8:S10 Create and maintain records. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
CC9:K1 Personal cultural biases and differences that affect one's teaching. SPED 5300 
CC9:K2 Importance of the teacher serving as a model for individuals with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5300 
SPED 5350 
CC9:K3 Continuum of lifelong professional development.  
CC9:K4 Methods to remain current regarding research-validated practice. SPED 5230 
CC9:S1 Practice within the CEC Code of Ethics and other standards of the profession. SPED 5230 
CC9:S2 Uphold high standards of competence and integrity and exercise sound judgment in the practice of the profession.  
CC9:S3 Act ethically in advocating for appropriate services.  
CC9:S4 Conduct professional activities in compliance with applicable laws and policies. SPED 5300 
CC9:S5 Demonstrate commitment to developing the highest education and quality-of-life potential of individuals with exceptional learning needs.  
CC9:S6 Demonstrate sensitivity for the culture, language, religion, gender, disability, socioeconomic status, and sexual orientation of individuals.  
CC9:S7 Practice within one's skill limits and obtain assistance as needed. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
CC9:S8 Use verbal, nonverbal, and written language effectively. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
CC9:S9 Conduct self-evaluation of instruction. SPED 5230 
CC9:S10 Access information on exceptionalities.  
CC9:S11 Reflect on one's practice to improve instruction and guide professional growth. SPED 5230 
CC9:S12 Engage in professional activities that benefit individuals with exceptional learning needs, their families, and one's colleagues. SPED 5230 
CC10:K1 Models and strategies of consultation and collaboration. SPED 5230 
CC10:K2 Roles of individuals with exceptional learning needs, families, and school and community personnel in planning of an individualized program. SPED 5230 
CC10:K3 Concerns of families of individuals with exceptional learning needs and strategies to help address these concerns.  
CC10:K4 Culturally responsive factors that promote effective communication and collaboration with individuals with exceptional learning needs, families, school personnel, and community members. SPED 5230 
CC10:S1 Maintain confidential communication about individuals with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5360 
CC10:S2 Collaborate with families and others in assessment of individuals with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
CC10:S3 Foster respectful and beneficial relationships between families and professionals. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
CC10:S4 Assist individuals with exceptional learning needs and their families in becoming active participants in the educational team. SPED 5310 
CC10:S5 Plan and conduct collaborative conferences with individuals with exceptional learning needs and their families. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
CC10:S6 Collaborate with school personnel and community members in integrating individuals with exceptional learning needs into various settings. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
CC10:S7 Use group problem-solving skills to develop, implement, and evaluate collaborative activities.  
CC10:S8 Model techniques and coach others in the use of instructional methods and accommodations. SPED 5230 
CC10:S9 Communicate with school personnel about the characteristics and needs of individuals with exceptional learning needs. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
CC10:S10 Communicate effectively with families of individuals with exceptional learning needs from diverse backgrounds. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
CC10:S11 Observe, evaluate, and provide feedback to paraeducators. SPED 5230 
GC1:K1 Definitions and issues related to the identification of individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
GC1:K2 Models and theories of deviance and behavior problems. SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
GC1:K3 Historical foundations, classic studies, major contributors, major legislation, and current issue related to knowledge and practice. SPED 5310 
SPED 5360 
GC1:K4 The legal, judicial, and educational systems to assist individuals with disabilities. SPED 5310 
GC1:K5 Continuum of placement and services available for individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5430 
GC1:K6 Laws and policies related to provision of specialized health care in educational settings.  
GC1:K7 Factors that influence the overrepresentation of culturally/linguistically diverse students in programs for individuals with disabilities. SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
GC1:K8 Principles of normalization and concept of least restrictive environment. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
GC1:K9 Theory of reinforcement techniques in serving individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
GC2:K1 Etiology and diagnosis related to various theoretical approaches.  
GC2:K2 Impact of sensory impairments, physical and health disabilities on individuals, families, and society.  
GC2:K3 Etiologies and medical aspects of conditions affecting individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
GC2:K4 Psychological and social-emotional characteristics of individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5360 
GC2:K5 Common etiologies and the impact of sensory disabilities on learning and experience.  
GC2:K6 Types and transmission routes of infectious disease.  
GC3:K1 Impact of disabilities on auditory and information processing skills. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
GC3:S1 Relate levels of support to the needs of the individual. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5430 
GC4:K1 Sources of specialized materials, curricula, and resources for individuals with disabilities. SPED 5300 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
GC4:K2 Strategies to prepare for and take tests. SPED 5310 
GC4:K3 Advantages and limitations of instructional strategies and practices for teaching individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5300 
SPED 5430 
GC4:K4 Prevention and intervention strategies for individuals at risk for a disability. SPED 5230 
SPED 5430 
GC4:K5 Strategies for integrating student-initiated learning experiences into ongoing instruction. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
GC4:K6 Methods for increasing accuracy and proficiency in math calculations and applications. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
GC4:K7 Methods for guiding individuals in identifying and organizing critical content. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
GC4:S1 Use research-supported methods for academic and nonacademic instruction of individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5360 
GC4:S2 Use strategies from multiple theoretical approaches for individuals with disabilities.  
GC4:S3 Teach learning strategies and study skills to acquire academic content. SPED 5230 
SPED 5300 
GC4:S4 Use reading methods appropriate to individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5300 
SPED 5310 
GC4:S5 Use methods to teach mathematics appropriate to the individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
GC4:S6 Modify pace of instruction and provide organizational cures. SPED 5310 
GC4:S7 Use appropriate adaptations and technology for all individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
GC4:S8 Resources and techniques used to transition individuals with disabilities into and out of school and postschool environments. SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
GC4:S9 Use a variety of nonaversive techniques to control targeted behavior and maintain attention of individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
GC4:S10 Identify and teach basic structures and relationships within and across curricula. SPED 5310 
GC4:S11 Use instructional methods to strengthen and compensate for deficits in perception, comprehension, memory, and retrieval.  
GC4:S12 Use responses and errors to guide instructional decisions and provide feedback to learners. SPED 5230 
GC4:S13 Identify and teach essential concepts, vocabulary, and content across the general curriculum. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
GC4:S14 Implement systematic instruction in teaching reading comprehension and monitoring strategies. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
GC4:S15 Teach strategies for organizing and composing written products. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
GC4:S16 Implement systematic instruction to teach accuracy, fluency, and comprehension in content area reading and written language. SPED 5230 
GC5:K1 Barriers to accessibility and acceptance of individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
GC5:K2 Adaptation of the physical environment to provide optimal learning opportunities for individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5360 
GC5:K3 Methods for ensuring individual academic success in one-to-one, small-group, and large-group settings. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5320 
GC5:S1 Provide instruction in community-based settings.  
GC5:S2 Use and maintain assistive technologies. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
GC5:S3 Plan instruction in a variety of educational settings. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
GC5:S4 Teach individuals with disabilities to give and receive meaningful feedback from peers and adults. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
GC5:S5 Use skills in problem-solving and conflict resolution. SPED 5350 
GC5:S6 Establish a consistent classroom routine for individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5430 
GC6:K1 Impact of language development and listening comprehension on academic and nonacademic learning of individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
GC6:K2 Communication and social interaction alternatives for individuals who are nonspeaking.  
GC6:K3 Typical language development and how that may differ for individuals with learning disabilities.  
GC6:S1 Enhance vocabulary development. SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
GC6:S2 Teach strategies for spelling accuracy and generalization. SPED 5230 
GC6:S3 Teach individuals with disabilities to monitor for errors in oral and written language. SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
GC6:S4 Teach methods and strategies for producing legible documents. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
GC6:S5 Plan instruction on the use of alternative and augmentative communication systems.  
GC7:K1 Integrate academic instruction and behavior management for individuals and groups with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
GC7:K2 Model career, vocational, and transition programs for individuals with disabilities. SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
GC7:K3 Interventions and services for children who may be at risk for learning disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5430 
GC7:K4 Relationships among disabilities and reading instruction. SPED 5310 
SPED 5430 
GC7:S1 Plan and implement individualized reinforcement systems and environmental modifications at levels equal to the intensity of the behavior. SPED 5230 
SPED 5350 
SPED 5360 
GC7:S2 Select and use specialized instructional strategies appropriate to the abilities and needs of the individual. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
GC7:S3 Plan and implement age- and ability-appropriate instruction for individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5310 
GC7:S4 Select, design, and use technology, materials, and resources required to educate individuals whose disabilities interfere with communication. SPED 5310 
GC7:S5 Interpret sensory, mobility, reflex, and perceptual information to create or adapt appropriate learning plans.  
GC7:S6 Design and implement instructional programs that address independent living and career education for individuals.  
GC7:S7 Design and implement curriculum and instructional strategies for medical self-management procedures.  
GC7:S8 Design, implement, and evaluate instructional programs that enhance social participation across environments. SPED 5230 
GC8:K1 Specialized terminology used in the assessment of individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
GC8:K2 Laws and policies regarding referral and placement procedures for individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
GC8:K3 Types and importance of information concerning individuals with disabilities available from families and public agencies. SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
GC8:K4 Procedures for early identification of young children who may be at risk for disabilities.  
GC8:S1 Implement procedures for assessing and reporting both appropriate and problematic social behaviors of individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5360 
GC8:S2 Use exceptionality-specific assessment instruments with individuals with disabilities. SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
GC8:S3 Select, adapt and modify assessments to accommodate the unique abilities and needs of individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
SPED 5320 
SPED 5320 
GC8:S4 Assess reliable methods of response of individuals who lack typical communication and performance abilities.  
GC8:S5 Monitor intragroup behavior changes across subjects and activities.  
GC9:K1 Sources of unique services, networks, and organizations for individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
GC9:K2 Organizations and publications relevant to individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
GC9:S1 Participate in the activities of professional organizations relevant to individuals with disabilities.  
GC9:S2 Ethical responsibility to advocate for appropriate services for individuals with disabilities. SPED 5230 
GC10:K1 Parent education programs and behavior management guides that address severe behavior problems and facilitation communication for individuals with disabilities.  
GC10:K2 Collaborative and/or consultative role of the special education teacher in the reintegration of individuals with disabilities.  
GC10:K3 Roles of professional groups and referral agencies in identifying, assessing, and providing services to individuals with disabilities.  
GC10:K4 Co-planning and co-teaching methods to strengthen content acquisition of individuals with learning disabilities.  
GC10:S1 Use local community, and state and provincial resources to assist in programming with individuals with disabilities.  
GC10:S2 Select, plan, and coordinate activities of related services personnel to maximize direct instruction for individuals with disabilities.  
GC10:S3 Teach parents to use appropriate behavior management and counseling techniques.  
GC10:S4 Collaborate with team members to plan transition to adulthood that encourages full community participation. SPED 5320 
SPED 5320